This chart shows the typical increase in mechanical properties as a result of cold work on AISI 316 stainless steel.
cold work:Permanently altering the shape or size of a metal by
plastic deformation, carried out below the recrystallization
point. Hardness and tensile strength are increased with the degree of
cold work (% of wall reduction) while ductility and impact values are
lowered. Dimensional accuracies are achieved well beyond hot working
Flowforming is a cold working process. Large amounts of refrigerated machine coolant are used during the process cycle to dissipate the adiabatic heat generated by the plastic deformation. The cooling of the workpiece, mandrel and rollers ensures that the material is worked well below its recrystallization temperature. Being a cold forming process, flowforming often achieves mechanical properties and dimensional accuracies that are far closer to requirements than any warm or hot forming manufacturing process.